Pollinator Data Sources for the Ecoregional Revegetation Application

Mark W. Skinner compiled these data on North American flower visitors and the plants they visit in 2017 from a broad range of sources, though primarily the scientific literature and museum specimens. Experts provided some non-referenced information. Chief among these sources and in approximate order of importance are:

The final data set contains native accepted plant species only; information for synonyms and infra-taxa was accreted to these binomial names. Skinner assembled the data sequentially so that the most reliable sources (literature and specimens) vastly predominated in the final dataset.

The USDA PLANTS Database provides the nomenclatural and distributional standard for this project, including plant names, distributions, and much ecological data. USDA PLANTS distribution data were augmented from existing herbarium sources for Iowa, South Dakota, and Oklahoma (thanks to Dr. Bruce Hoagland for the Oklahoma distribution data), and corrected to remove obvious cases of plants that have spread from their native ranges. These distribution data were then used to assign plants to EPA Level III ecoregions for the Ecoregional Revegetation Application online tool.

Enormous thanks to everyone for their contributions to nature, especially the United States Department of Agriculture and Federal Highway Administration which funded all this work.

If you use these plant/pollinator data, please cite as:

United States Department of Agriculture and US Federal Highway Administration. 2017. National database for pollinator-friendly revegetation and restoration. Compiled by Mark W. Skinner, Gretchen LeBuhn, David Inouye, Terry Griswold, and Jennifer Hopwood. Online at http://www.nativerevegetation.org/era/. Contact Mark W. Skinner (mskinner02@fs.fed.us or mwskinner55@gmail.com) for updates or more information.

If you use the larger project (e-book and this website), please cite as:

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. 2017. Roadside Revegetation: An Integrated Approach to Establishing Native Plants and Pollinator Habitat. Contributing authors (in alphabetical order): Armstrong, A., Christians, R., Erickson, V., Hopwood, J., Horning, M., Kim, T., Kramer, A., Landis, T., Moore, L., Remley, D., Riley, L., Riley, S., Roberts, S., Skinner, M., Steinfeld, D., Teuscher, T., Wilkinson, K., and A. White. E-book, available online.

References used >10 times in these data:

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Artz, D.R., and K.D. Waddington. 2006. The effects of neighbouring tree islands on pollinator density and diversity, and on pollination of a wet prairie species, Asclepias lanceolata. Apocynaceae). Journal of Ecology 94: 597-608.

Baltosser, W.H. 1989. Nectar availability and habitat selection by hummingbirds in Guadalupe Canyon. Wilson Bulletin 101:559-578.

Baltosser, W.H. and P.E. Scott. 1996. Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae). In A. Poole and F. Gill [eds.], The birds of North America. No. 251. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Bené, F. 1941. The role of learning in the feeding behavior of black-chinned hummingbirds. The Condor 47 (1): 3-22.

Bent, A.C. 1940. Life histories of North American cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds, and their allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 176. 506pp.

Bertin, R.I. 1982. The ruby-throated hummingbird and its major food plants: ranges, flowering phenology, and migration. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60 (2):210-219.

Brown, J.H., Kodric-Brown, A., Whitham, T.G., and H.W. Bond. 1981. Competition between hummingbirds and insects for the nectar of two species of shrubs. Southwestern Naturalist 26. (2):133-145.

Brusca. 2006. Migratory Pollinators Project: Rufous Hummingbirds. Website accessed 4/15/2008, http://www.desertmuseum.org/pollination/hummingbirds.php.

Calder, W.A. 1993. Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus). In A. Poole and F. Gill [eds.], The birds of North America, No. 53. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Calder, W.A., and L.L. Calder. 1992. Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selasphorus platycerus). In A. Poole and F. Gill [eds.], The birds of North America, No. 16. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Calder, W.A. and L.L. Calder. 1994. Calliope Hummingbird (Stellula calliope). In A. Poole and F. Gill [eds.], The birds of North America, No. 135. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Calder, W.A. 2004. Rufous and broad-tailed hummingbirds: pollination, migration, and population biology In: Conserving Migratory Pollinators and Nectar Corridors in Western North America. 59-79.

Clements and Long. 1923. Experimental pollination: An outline of the ecology of flowers and insects NCEAS-Interaction Web Database online source url: http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/interactionweb/html/clements_1923.html

Clinebell, R.R., II, A. Crowe, D.P. Gregory & P.C. Hoch. 2004. Pollination ecology of Gaura and Calylophus. Onagraceae, Tribe Onagreae) in western Texas, USA. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 91. (3): 369-400.

Cole, F.R., and D.H. Firmage. 1984. The Floral ecology of Platanthera blephariglottis. American Journal of Botany 71. (5): 700-710.

Crosswhite, F.S. and C.D. Crosswhite. 1981. Hummingbirds as pollinators of flowers in the red-yellow segments of the color spectrum, with special reference to Penstemon and the open habitat. Desert Plants 3:156-170.

del Coro Arizmendi, M. 2001. Multiple ecological interactions: nectar robbers and hummingbirds in a highland forest in Mexico. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79. (6):997-1006.

Downey, J.C. and W.C. Fuller. 1961. Variation in Plebejus icarioides. Lycaenidae); I. Foodplant specificity. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 15(1): 34-42.

Ellis, S.L. 1974. Field Observations on Colias alexandra Edwards. Pieridae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 28(2): 114-125.

Emmel, J.F., and. C.D. Emmel. 1968. The population biology and life history of Papilio indra martini. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 22.(1): 46- 52.

Emmel, J.F., and C.D. Emmel. 1974. Ecological Studies of Rhopalocera in a Sierra Nevadan Community--Donner Pass, California. V. Faunal additions and foodplant records since 1962. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 28(4): 344-348.

Emmel, T.C. and J.F. Emmel. 1962. Ecological Studies of Rhopalocera in a High Sierran Community -- Donner Pass, California. I. Butterfly associations and distributional factors. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 16 (1): 23-44.

Evans, M.E.K., Menges, E.S., and D.R. Gordon. 2003. Reproductive biology of three sympatric endangered plants endemic to Florida scrub. Biological Conservation 111: 235-246.

Ferris, C.D., and F.M. Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain states. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Fishbein, M., and D.L. Venable. 1996. Diversity and temporal change in the effective pollinators of Asclepias tuberosa. Ecology 77. 4):1061-1073.

Fleming, T.H., Geiselman, C., and W.J. Kress. 2009. The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective. Annals of Botany 104: 1017€"1043.

Grant, K.A., and V. Grant. 1966. Records of hummingbird pollination in the western American flora. I. Some California plant species. Aliso 6: 51-66.

Grant, K.A., and V. Grant. 1968. Hummingbirds & Their Flowers. New York: Columbia University Press.

Grant, K.A., and V. Grant. 1967a. Records of hummingbird pollination in the western American flora. II. Additional California records. Aliso 6: 103-105.

Grant, K.A., and V. Grant. 1967b. Records of Hummingbird pollination in the western American flora. III. Arizona records. Aliso 6: 107-110.

Grant, V. 1983. The systematic and geographical distribution of hawkmoth flowers in the temperate North American flora. Botanical Gazette 144: 439-449.

Grant, V. 1985. Additional observations on temperate North American hawkmoth flowers. Botanical Gazette 144: 517-520.

Grant, V., and K.A. Grant. 1970. A hummingbird-pollinated species of Boraginaceae in the Arizona Flora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 66: 917-919.

Grant, V., and P. D. Hurd. 1979. Pollination of the Southwestern USA Opuntias. Plant Systematics and Evolution 133 (1-2): 15-28.

Grant, V., and W. A. Connell. 1979. The association between Carpophilus beetles and cactus flowers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 133(1-2): 99-102.

Gregory, D.P. 1963. Hawmoth Pollination in the Genus Oenothera. Aliso 5(3): 357-384.

Gregory, D.P. 1964. Hawkmoth Pollination in the Genus Oenothera: Pollination in other subgenera of Oenothera. Aliso 5(4): 385-419.

James, R.L. 1948. Some hummingbird flowers east of the Mississippi. Castanea 13 (3): 97-109.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1997. The hummingbirds of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Kendall, R.O. 1959. More larval foodplants from Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 13(4): 221-2294.

Kephart, S.R. 1983. The partitioning of pollinators among three species of Asclepias. Ecology 64 (1):120-133.

Kodric-Brown, A., J.H. Brown, G.S. Byers, and D.F. Gori. 1984. Organization of a tropical island community of hummingbirds and flowers. Ecology 65(5):1358-1368.

Lange, R.S., Scobell, S.A., and P.E. Scott. 2000. Hummingbird-syndrome traits, breeding system, and pollinator effectiveness in two syntopic Penstemon species. International Journal of Plant Sciences 161 (2): 253-263.

Lazri, B., and E.M. Barrows. 1984. Flower visiting and pollen transport by the imported cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera Pieridae) in a highly disturbed urban habitat. Environmental Entomology 13(2): 574-578.

Lewis, A. C. 1989. Flower visit consistency in Pieris rapae, the cabbage. The Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 1-13

Macior, L.W. 1975. The pollination ecology of Delphinium tricorne (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany 62(10): 1009-1016.

Mawdsley, J.R. 2003. The importance of species of dasytinae (Coleoptera: Melyridae) as pollinators in western North America. Coleopterists Bulletin 57(2): 154-160.

Miliczky, E.R. and E.A. Osgood. 1979. Insects visiting bloom of withe rod Viburnum cassinoides in the Orono Maine USA Area. Entomological News 90(3): 131-134.

Miller, J.C., and P.C. Hammond. 2003. Lepidoptera of the Pacific Northwest: caterpillars and adults. Morgantown, WV, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, USDA, Forest Service.

Motten, A.F. 1986. Pollination ecology of the spring wildflower community of a temperate deciduous forest. Ecological Monographs 56: 21-42.

Neck, R.W. 1983. Significance of visits by hackberry butterflies (Nymphalidae: Astrocampa) to flowers. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 37(4): 269-274.

Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. 2006. Oklahoma's summer jewels -- ruby-throated hummingbirds. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online, url: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/okhummin/attract.htm.

Ollerton, J., and S. Liede. 1997. Pollination systems in the Asclepiadaceae: a survey and preliminary analysis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 62: 593-610.

Opler, P.A., and G.O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains: an illustrated natural history. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pellmyr, O., and J. Leebens-Mack. 2000. Reversal of mutualism as a mechanism for adaptive radiation in yucca moths. American Naturalist 156:S62-S76.

Pellmyr, O. 1985. The Pollination Biology of Actaea pachypoda and Actaea rubra Including Actaea erythrocarpa in Northern Michigan USA and Finland. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 112(3): 265-273.

Perkins, G., Estes, J.R., and R.W. Thorp. 1975. Pollination ecology of interspecific hybridization in Verbena. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 102. 4): 194-198.

Pliske, T.E. 1975. Attraction of Lepidoptera to plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Environmental Entomology 4(3): 455-473.

Pratt, G.F., and G. R. Ballmer. 1991. Three biotypes of Apodemia mormo (Riodinidae) in the Mojave Desert. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 45(1): 46-57.

Robertson, C. 1928. Flowers and insects: lists of visitors of four hundred And fifty-three flowers. The Science Press Printing Co., Lancaster, PA. 221 pp.

Robinson, G.S., Ackery, P.R., Kitching, I.J., Beccaloni, G.W., and L.M. Hernández. 2002. Hostplants of the moth and butterfly caterpillars of America north of Mexico. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Volume 69. 824 pp.

Russell, S.M. 1996. Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna). In A. Poole, & F. Gill (Eds.), The birds of North America, no. 226. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.

Savela, M. 2007. Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms: Satyrinae. http://www.nic.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/nymphalidae/satyrinae/index.html. Version of 2007-MAY-12. Retrieved 2007-MAY-31.

Scaffer, W.M., and M.V. Schaffer. 1979. The adaptive significance of variations in reproductive habit in the Agavaceae II: Pollinator foraging behavior and selection for increased reproductive expenditure. Ecology 60(5): 1051-1069.

Smith, G.R., and G.E. Snow. 1976. Pollination ecology of Platanthera (Habenaria) ciliaris and P. blephariglottis (Orchidaceae). Botanical Gazette 137(2): 133-140.

Sohmer, S.H., and D.F. Sefton. 1978. The reproductive biology of Nelumbo pentapetala (Nelumbonaceae) on the upper Mississippi River USA Part 2: the insects associated with the transfer of pollen. Brittonia 30(3): 355-364.

Stephenson, A.G., and W.W. Thomas. 1977. Diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). Systematic Botany 2(3): 191-198.

Stiles, F.G. 1973. Food supply and the annual cycles of the Anna hummingbird. University of California Publications in Zoology.

Stiles, F.G. 1976. Taste preferences color preferences and flower choice in hummingbirds. The Condor 78(1):39016

Sutherland, S.D., and R.K. Vickery, Jr. 1993. On the relative importance of floral color, shape, and nectar rewards in attracting pollinators to Mimulus. Great Basin Naturalist 53 (2):107-117.

Towner, H.F. 1977. The biosystematics of Calylophus (Onagraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 64(1): 48-120.

Travis, J. 1984. Breeding system pollination and pollinator limitation in a perennial herb Amianthium muscaetoxicum Liliaceae. American Journal of Botany 71(7): 941-947.

Tuskes, P.M. 1976. A key to the last instar larvae of the West Coast Saturniidae. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 30(4): 272-276.

Tyrrell, E.Q. 1985. Hummingbirds, their life and behavior: a photographic study of the North American species / photographs by Robert A. Tyrrell ; text by Esther Quesada Tyrrell. New York: Crown.

Venable, B.A.B., and E.M. Barrows. 1985. Skippers: pollinators or nectar thieves? Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 39(4): 299-312.

Waddington, K.D. 1976. Pollination of Apocynum sibiricum Apocynaceae by Lepidoptera. Southwestern Naturalist 21(1): 31-36.

Watt, W.B.,Hoch, P.C., and S.G. Mills. 1974. Nectar resource use by Colias butterflies chemical and visual aspects. Oecologia (Berlin) 14(4): 353-374.

White, R.R. and M.C. Singer. 1974. Geographical distribution of hostplant choice in Euphydryas editha (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 28(2): 103-107.

Worth, C. B., T.F. Williams, A.P. Platt, and B.P. Bradley. 1979. Differential growth among larvae of Citheronia regalis (Saturniidae) on three genera of foodplants. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 33(3): 162-166.

References uses <10 times in the data:

Addicott, J.F. 1986. Variation in the costs and benefits of mutualism: the interaction between yuccas and yucca moths Tegeticula yuccasella. Oecologia (Berlin) 70(4): 486-494.

Addicott, J.F. and A.J. Tyre. 1995. Cheating in an obligate mutualism: How often do yucca moths benefit yuccas? Oikos 72(3): 382-394.

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Addicott, J.F. 1998. Regulation of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths: population level processes. Oikos 81 (1): 119-129.

Aigner, P.A. 2005. Variation in pollination performance gradients in a Dudleya species complex: can generalization promote floral divergence? Functional Ecology 19 (4):681-689.

Aigner, P.A. 2004. Floral specialization without trade-offs: Optimal corolla flare in contrasting pollination environments. Ecology (Washington D C) 85 (9):2560-2569.

Aigner, P.A. and P.E. Scott. 2002. Use and pollination of a hawkmoth plant, Nicotiana attenuata, by migrant hummingbirds. Southwestern Naturalist 47(1):1-11.

Aker, C.L. and D. Udovic. 1981. Oviposition and pollination behavior of the yucca moth, Tegeticula maculata (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae), and its relation to the reproductive biology of Yucca whipplei (Agavaceae). Oecologia 49: 96-101.

Alcorn, S.M., S.E. McGregor, G. Olin. 1961. Pollination of saguaro cactus by doves, nectar-feeding bats, and honey bees. Science 133 (3464):1594€"1595.

Allan, P.F. 1949. Black-chinned hummingbird in Tarrant County, Texas. The Condor 51:271-272.

Althoff, D.M., Segraves, K.A., and J.P. Sparks. 2004. Characterizing the interaction between the bogus yucca moth and yuccas: do bogus yucca moths impact yucca reproductive success? Oecologia 140 (2): 321-327.

Archer, T.L., and E.D. Bynum Jr. 1994. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) biology on food corn on the High Plains. Environmental Entomology 23 (22): 343-348.

Arizmendi, M.C., Dominguez, C.A., and R. Dirzo. 1996. The role of an avian nectar robber and of hummingbird pollinators in the reproduction of two plant species. Functional Ecology 10 (1):119-127.

Arriaga, L., R. Rodriguez-Estrella, A. Ortega-Rubio. 1990. Endemic hummingbirds and madrones of Baja: are they mutually dependent? The Southwestern Naturalist 35 (1): 76-79.

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Baker, H.G. 1961. The adaptations of flowering plants to nocturnal and crepuscular pollinators. The Quarterly Review of Biology 36:64-73.

Barthell, J.F. and J.M.H. Knops. 1997. Visitation of evening primrose by carpenter bees: evidence of a mixed pollination syndrome. The Southwest Naturalist 42(1):86-93.

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Benham, B.R. 1969. Insect visitors to Chamerion angustifolium and their behavior in relation to pollination. Entomologist 102 (1277):221-228.

Berenbaum, M. 1978. Taenidia integerrima, a new foodplant record for Papilio polyxenes (Papilionidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 32(4): 303-304.

Bertin, R.I. 1980. Floral biology, hummingbird pollination, and pollinator limitation of trumpet creeper Campsis -radicans. The University of British Columbia. Second International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, July 17-24, 1980. I+441p. University of British Columbia: Vancouver, B.C., Canada.

Bertin, R.I. 1982b. Floral biology, hummingbird pollination and fruit production of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans, Bignoniaceae). American Journal of Botany 69 (1):122-134.

Bosch, M. and N.M. Waser. 1999. Effects of local density on pollination and reproduction in Delphinium nuttallianum and Aconitum columbianum (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany 86 (6):871-879.

Bosch, M. and N.M. Waser. 2001. Experimental manipulation of plant density and its effect on pollination and reproduction of two confamilial montane herbs. Oecologia (Berlin) 126 (1):76-83.

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Boyd, A.E. 2004. Breeding system of Macromeria viridiflora (Boraginaceae) and geographic variation in pollinator assemblages. American Journal of Botany 91 (11):1809-1813.

Brody, A.K. and R.J. Mitchell. 1997. Effects of experimental manipulation of inflorescence size on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation in the hummingbird-pollinated plant Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia (Berlin) 110 (1): 86-93.

Brown, J.H., and A. Kodric-Brown. 1979. Convergence competition and mimicry in a temperate community of hummingbird-pollinated flowers. Ecology 60 (5):1022-1035.

Brown, J.M., Leebens-Mack, J.H., Thompson, J.N., Pellmyr, O., and R.G. Harrison. 1997. Phylogeography and host association in a pollinating seed parasite Greya politella (Lepidoptera: Prodoxidae). Molecular Ecology 6(3): 215-224.

Browning, M.R., and W. English. 1967. Anna's Hummingbird in Southwestern Oregon. The Condor 69 (1):89.

Broyles, S.B. and R. Wyatt. 1991. Effective pollen dispersal in a natural population of Asclepias exaltata: the influence of pollinator behavior, genetic similarity, and mating success. American Naturalist 138(5): 1239- 1249.

Bruneau, A. 1997. Evolution and homology of bird pollination syndromes in Erythrina (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany 84(1):54-71.

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Cabrera R.L., and G. Dieringer. 1992. Reproductive biology of a population of Acourtia runcinata (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) at the northeastern limit of its range. American Midland Naturalist 128: 83-88

Campbell, D.C., Waser, N.M., Price, M.V., Lynch, E.A., and R.J. Mitchell. 1991. A mechanistic analysis of phenotypic selection: pollen export and corolla width in Ipomopsis aggregata. Evolution, 45, 1458€"1467.

Campbell, D.R. 1989. Measurements of selection in a hermaphroditic plant: variation in male and female pollination success. Evolution 43(2):318-334

Campbell, D.R. 1991. Effects of floral traits on sequential components of fitness in Ipomopsis aggregata. American Naturalist 137 (6):713-737.

Campbell, D.R., Waser, N.M., and E.J. Melendez-Ackerman. 1997. Analyzing pollinator-mediated selection in a plant hybrid zone: hummingbird visitation patterns on three spatial scales. American Naturalist 149(2):295-315.

Campbell, D.R., Waser, N.M, and G.T. Pederson. 2002. Predicting patterns of mating and potential hybridization from pollinator behavior. The American Naturalist, 159(5): 438-450.

Cariveau, D., Irwin, R.E., Brody, A.K., Garcia-Mayeya, L.S., and A. von der Ohe. 2004. Direct and indirect effects of pollinators and seed predators to selection on plant and floral traits. Oikos 104 (1):15-26.

Carpenter, F.L., Paton, D.C., and M.A. Hixon. 1983. Weight gain and adjustment of feeding territory size in migrant hummingbirds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 80:7259-7263.

Castellanos, M.C., Wilson, P., and J.D. Thomson. 2003. Pollen transfer by hummingbirds and bumblebees, and the divergence of pollination modes. Evolution 57:2742-2752.

Chambers, D.S. 1963. A preliminary study of foodplant preferences in the Lycaena helloides complex (Lycaenidae) in Colorado. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 17(1): 24-26.

Chaplin, S.J., and J.L. Walker. 1982. Energetic constraints and adaptive significance of the floral display of a forest milkweed. Ecology 63(6): 1857-1870.

Chase, V.C. and P.H. Raven. 1975. Evolutionary and Ecological Relationships between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens Ranunculaceae 2 Perennial Plants. Evolution 29 3 474-486.

Clinebell, R.R. and P. Bernhardt. 1998. The pollination ecology of five species of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae) in the tallgrass prairie. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85(1): 126-136.

Cottam, C. 1941. Color attractive to hummingbirds. The Auk 58: 261.

Cottam, C. and P. Knappen. 1939. Food of some uncommon North American birds. The Auk 56:138-169.

Crabb, B.A. and O. Pellmyr. 2004. Defection by plants in the yucca-yucca moth associaton: a test of the cheater plant hypothesis for Yucca treculeana. Oikos 107 (2): 321-328.

Cruden, R.W. and V.M. Toledo. 1977. Oriole pollination of Erythrina breviflora (Leguminosae) evidence for a polytypic view of ornithophily. Plant Systematics and Evolution 126(4):393-403.

Cruden, R.W. 1970. Hawkmoth pollination of Mirabilis (Nyctaginaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 97 (2): 89-91.

Cruden, R.W., and S.M. Hermann-Parker. 1977. Defense of feeding sites by Orioles and Hepatic Tanagers in Mexico. The Auk 94 (3):594-596.

Desai, S. and R.A. Raguso. 2001. Flower morphology, learning ability and nectar discovery time by naive Manduca sexta. American Zoologist 41(6).

Dickinson, J.A., and M.J. McKone. 1992. Insect floral visitors to four species of tall-grass prairie composite (Asteraceae:Heliantheae). Prairie Naturalist 24(3) 159.

Dodd, R.J. and Y.B. Linhart. 1994. Reproductive consequences of interactions between Yucca glauca (Agavaceae) and Tegeticula yuccasella (Lepidoptera) in Colorado. American Journal of Botany 81(7): 815-825.

Dorr, L.J. 1980. Euphyes bimacula (Hesperiidae) in the Southeast Coastal Plain. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 34(4): 373-374.

Dudash, M.R. and C.B. Fenster. 1997. Multiyear study of pollen limitation and cost of reproduction in the iteroparous Silene virginica. Ecology 78 (2):484-493.

Duffield, W.J. 1972. Pollination ecology of Castilleja in Mount Rainier National Park. Ohio Journal of Science 72 (2):110-114.

Edwards, J., and J.R. Jordan. 1992. Reversible anther opening in Lilium philadelphicum (Liliaceae): A possible means of enhancing male fitness. American Journal of Botany 79 (2): 144-148.

Eff, D. 1955. The foodplant of Erynnis pacuvius. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 9(1): 15.

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